Hawking Radiation

Hawking, an English theoretical physicist, was one of the first to consider the details of the behavior of a black hole whose Schwarzschild radius was on the level of an atom. These black holes are not necessarily low mass, for example, it requires 1 billion tons of matter to make a black hole the size of a proton. But their small size means that their behavior is a mix of quantum mechanics rather than relativity.
Before black holes were discovered it was know that the collision of two photons can cause pair production. This is a direct example of converting energy into mass (unlike fission or fusion which turns mass into energy). Pair production is one of the primary methods of forming matter in the early Universe.pair_production

Note that pair production is symmetric in that a matter and antimatter particle are produced (an electron and an anti-electron (positron) in the above example).
Hawking showed that the strong gravitational gradients (tides) near black holes can also lead to pair production. In this case, the gravitational energy of the black hole is converted into particles.

hawking_radiationIf the matter/anti-matter particle pair is produced below the event horizon, then particles remain trapped within the black hole. But, if the pair is produced above the event horizon, it is possible for one member to fall back into the black hole, the other to escape into space. Thus, the black hole can lose mass by a quantum mechanical process of pair production outside of the event horizon.
The rate of pair production is stronger when the curvature of spacetime is high. Small black holes have high curvature, so the rate of pair production is inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole (this means its faster for smaller black holes). Thus, Hawking was able to show that the mini or primordial black holes expected to form in the early Universe have since disintegrated, resolving the dilemma of where all such mini-black holes are today.

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